This is undoubtedly one of the most common types of cancers that cause deaths in Poland, which in addition is still growing. Its development follows as a result of the sudden growth of cells in one area of the colon. the cecum, the Crossbeam, wstępnicy, rectum or zstępnicy.
There are both different symptoms, and a variety of treatment for cancer of the colon, which is chosen individually to the patient.
Colon cancer is attacking more often men than women after 40. years of age, and especially – after 70.
The causes of disease
Most likely of developing colon cancer affects people whose relatives were sickened for a similar type of cancer, Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Risk charged are also smokers, obese people, struggling with the problem of the presence of polyps in the Interior of the colon or those previously diagnosed with cancer of the colon.
Among the causes of the illnesses we can distinguish two main groups:
- Of developing sporadic, in the case of people who do not have the genetic load or family
- Of developing a family-in carriers of the gene defects or people that do not know why, they are characterized by an increased risk of morbidity. This group is, however, only 1/4 of the total number of cases.
Symptoms of the disease
Depending on the stage of the disease you can observe different symptoms. Usually, however, these are:
- rectal haemorrhage,
- blood in stool,
- constipation mixing with diarrhoea,
- nuisance diarrhea,
- deformation of the stool,
- headaches, abdominal cramps,
- feeling the urge to stool,
- weight loss,
- lack of appetite,
Diagnosis of the disease
How to diagnosis is chosen depending on the symptoms that throws an expert patient. Based on an interview the doctor indicates what tests should be performed to diagnose colon cancer.
Sometimes your doctor may decide to skriningowego examination – screening – healthy people, which although they do not suffer any of the above ailments or diseases of the intestines, it can be exposed to the disease. Early detection of colon cancer, in fact, suitable prevention and countering clearly increase the likelihood of cure of the disease.
Performs the following tests:
- Then the test is, in a way – rectal lower part of the rectum for possible tumors on this episode.
- Karcynoembrionalny Antigen in the blood – a blood test, taking into account the concentration of markeru characteristic when you expand the body of colon cancer. Currently they are used above all in the moment, when you finish treatment, control purposes.
- The presence of occult blood in stool-as the name implies, controls the presence of blood in the stool.
- Rectoscopy-survey of endoscopic species, consisting of arranging to vent rigid optical instrument, which allows the monitoring of up to 25 cm the last episode of the colon. rectum and sigmoid colon. In case of need it gives you the possibility of a biopsy. Because the same rectoscopy not is painful, there is no need to numb the patient. Before rectoscopy however, thoroughly clean the intestines with any remains of food, with special formulae for defecation.
- Colonoscopy – one of the most frequently performed in this case study, based on the introduction to anal an endoscope with a length of up to 1.5 m. This makes it possible to visualize the entire colon, up to the point the connection with the small intestine, or shunt Bauhina. Colonoscopy gives you a number of additional capabilities, m.in. biopsy, stop hemorrhaging, the founding of the stent.
- Colonoscopy virtual – using a CT scanner. The large intestine is admitted the air stream.
- Contrast to the colon is poured into contrast connected with air, and then executes the x-rays. However, in order to carry out this study, it is necessary to advance the microscopic diagnosis of cancer based on downloaded from the body stretches.
Treatment of colorectal cancer
Depending on the stage of the disease is chosen the appropriate methods of treatment. The most basic technique is to carry out the operation, and usually it is on this method choose doctors. Sometimes, however, it is not possible to carry out immediately.
In case, when colon cancer is a small polyp, it is possible to remove the tumor itself, a local without having to cut the entire portion of the intestine. Usually surgical treatment performed laparoscopic or endoscopic method (using colonoscopy or rectoscopy).
Usually, however, it is necessary to remove not only the tumor itself, but also the entire portion of the large intestine. In this case, the patient is given general anesthesia, and then performs a 20-centimeter incision in the area. The same treatment also is divided into several categories, i.e.:
- Right hemikolektomia-the tumor located in the cecum, wstępnicy or the right part of the predecessors
- Left hemikolektomia-by polipach on the left side of the Crossbeam, zstępnicy and the upper section of the sigmoid colon
- Cut the sigmoid colon along with the upper part of the rectum – in case, when the tumor is located on these episodes.
- Cut the bottom portion of the sigmoid colon along with the odbytnicą-in the diagnosis of the tumor of the rectum.
More and more often in order to remove mutated stretches of the colon using a laparoscope. Not in any facility, however, is practiced such treatments, because they do not have the right equipment or employ doctors who would be prepared to carry out such treatment. Laparoscopic treatment of colon cancer requires experience.
Sometimes the treatment is associated with the necessity of founding the stoma fistula, also known as kałową, an artificial anus or colostomy. Ostomy is a special hole in the wall of the stomach that connects to the last section of the intestine. This way the stool goes out on the outside, to the plastic bag ostomy. Shunt these apply both temporarily and permanently.
At high levels of disease and przerzutach on the neighbouring authority may need to carry out surgical acute critical illness. In this situation, when colon cancer progresses, and the treatment does not give the desired effect, you may need to completely remove your body-stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, bladder, etc.
If, on the other hand, it comes to chemotherapy, it is used both before and after the operation. Before it can help to reduce the size of the tumor, and hence positively for further treatment. After the surgery, but eliminates any cancer cells that may be in your body.
However, use of radiotherapy, namely the treatment of colon cancer radiation. It concerns especially cancers of the rectum. Like chemotherapy, apply them either before or after the operation.
Up to 4/5 of all colorectal cancers are the cases in which the background family does not have any effect. Sick people do not have, therefore, in immediate family no incidence of cancer. Only 1/5 of patients is colorectal cancer. Out of this group, 5% are cases of band Lynch, or cancer of the colon, which is not related to the polipowatością-HNPCC. In turn, less than 1% of disease is caused a mutation in the APC gene, which in turn causes familial polyposis syndrome. In such cases, persons whose relatives in the first degree, have struggled with the disease of cancer of the colon, are much more subject to risk of developing this type of diseases.
If in your family diagnosed cases of colon cancer, it is giving in to periodic diagnozom. Will remain under the observation of the specialist doctor may allow early detection of colon cancer, take proper treatment and beat the cancer. In some cases, carried out preventive operations as well, whose purpose is to reduce the risk of morbidity.
Prevention of bowel disease and colon cancer-is it even possible?
Is there a way to prevent the onset of colon cancer? Well, it turns out that you can combat some of the factors contributing to the development of this type of cancer.
Prevention of bowel disease and colon cancer, which in this case is divided into three stages:
- Primary prevention – by eliminating the external factors that increase the risk of developing or reduced susceptibility to disease of colon cancer.
- Secondary prevention is early detection of cancer of the colon, giving the ability to cure before the onset of symptoms.
- Prevention of late (tertiary)-to reduce the risk of death or serious complications occurring during the fight with the disease.
Typically, the counter is also on the change in lifestyle taking into account the healthy practices, whose aim is to prevent the disease, which is cancer of the large intestine. Among the recommendations most often appear:
- the maintenance of regular physical activity,
- reduction or total elimination of fats of animal origin – the same fat should be a maximum of 30% of the total energy balance during the day,
- the regular inclusion in the diet of fresh fruits and vegetables (up to 5 times per day), for lowering cholesterol,
- replace the dishes baked and fried, boiled in water or steam,
- restriction, and preferably eliminate the products highly processed, smoked and chemical preservatives,
- eating vegetables, fiber-rich food (30 g of fiber per day) and antioxidants to natural prevention of constipation,
- to determine the correct amount of calories taken in during the day – according to the lifestyle, body weight and other factors,
- consumption of whole grains, such as brown bread or muesli,
- replace the black tea green,
- maintaining proper levels of calcium – 800-1000 mg per day-originating in e.g.. with milk, fruit, pulses, soya beans, cabbage, still mineral water,
- limit the consumption of cocoa, chocolate, coffee, strong tea,
- irrigation of the body-2 l per day
- reducing alcohol consumption.
Some studies have shown that regular intake of aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ibuprofen or naproxen has a lower probability of developing polyps or colon cancer by up to half! However, you might want to take account of the fact that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs contribute to the irritation of the stomach lining, and may even lead to bleeding. Because, while the prevention of using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, it is advisable to adopt only those measures which are absorbed in the intestines. polopiryna gastro-resistant. Before deciding on this kind of prevention you should consult your doctor in order to determine whether this method will certainly be appropriate in our case.
Women are less exposed to the likelihood of developing colon cancer, being on hormone replacement therapy. It is used typically after menopause. In addition, HRT reduces the risk of developing osteoporosis, but contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases, thrombosis, breast cancer or endometrial. In this case, also be sure to consult with a doctor who finds, are you sure we can use it.
These recommendations can reduce the risk of developing, however, note that it does not eliminate it entirely. Especially people over 50. years of age should be periodically for the presence of diseases such as colon cancer in the body. The sooner will begin fighting and will recognize the disease, the greater the chances for its recovery. To this end, it is worth following the screening tests:
- Colonoscopy (every 10 years),
- tests for hidden blood in the stool (once a year),
- infusion of contrast to the colon (once every 5 years).
If you have noticed at home worrying symptoms indicative of colon cancer, be sure to login to a specialist doctor. Remember – the sooner you do this, the greater will be the chances of recovery from the disease!