Gallstones – treatment, laparoscopic surgery

If in the gallbladder, and more specifically-in the bile, it is the presence of deposits of chemical substances, it is possible for an instance of cholelithiasis.

The gallbladder

Bile (gall) – as the name suggests, is used to store bile produced by the liver to metabolize fat intake. Is located just below the right lobe of the liver, and its shape is reminiscent of PEAR. During digestion the individual nutrients the body transports the bile biliary into the duodenum. Sometimes, however, on the way there are several deposits of cholesterol, nieograniczne ions, proteins, dyes or bile salts, which are – more or less – stones. The most common are stones mixed, created from cholesterol and dyes or induced through the same cholesterol. If the bile for too long blocked are localized, it is possible to lead to jaundice.

On the risk of developing gallstones, caused by cholesterol, are especially highly developed countries residents. In turn the second variety-test-people from poor regions of Asia and Africa. When it comes to gender considerations, however, three times more likely to develop the disease occurs in women than of the opposite sex. One of the reasons may be the hormone therapy, especially based on contraception. It was only after crossing 70. the age of these proportions align. A big role they also have a genetic predisposition, since gallstones can inherit after relatives. Other risk factors are listed:

  • overweight,
  • diabetes mellitus,
  • number of pregnancies,
  • hipertriglicerydemię,
  • medication,
  • the consequences, in the form of a resection of the stomach, a short intestine, etc.,
  • sudden weight loss,
  • wygłodzenie,
  • cystic fibrosis,
  • chronic infection of the urinary tract.

Symptoms of

There was no characteristic symptoms, which may clearly indicate about gallstones, so usually it is diagnosed when the control tests the gall bladder or abdominal ultrasound, performed on another occasion.

If stone does not block the entrance to the vesicular, the only symptoms may be:

  • excessive belching,
  • bloating,
  • feeling of fullness, completeness.

They are so general, that it's hard based on unambiguously confirm the disease. The problem starts only when the stone actually gets stuck in the wire. Distortion of the outflow of bile leads to painful liver colic with nausea and vomiting. The pain is described as a sudden and sharp feeling reminiscent of the attack, appearing around the stomach area or a little below the right costal margin. Then radiates it towards the back, right shoulder, shoulder blades, even the same neck-and takes about 3 hours. You should not ignore such attacks, because they can lead to a number of consequences, which constitute a real threat to the health and life of the patient. Blocked the outflow of bile leads at a later stage to build up fluid, resulting in a follicle to grow and harden. Over time, fills it Hydrocele and mucus, and the patient may feel a fever and chills, characteristic of inflammation. If the infection either, only a step separates us from inflammation of the biliary tract, pancreas or the peritoneum.

Treatment of early symptoms of cholelithiasis

If you at the above symptoms, be sure to login to a specialist. Especially at a time when there is a high fever, chills or vomiting. Colic vesicular worth accept antispasmodics or pain that your doctor tells you to. Among them are the most common:

  • diastolic measures-drotawertyna, hyoscine,
  • painkillers – acetaminophen, metamizole,
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • preparations for pain-relief.

It is possible that to diagnose gallstones will need additional tests. Only after them will be appropriate treatment.


Inflammation of the gall bladder can confirm only comprehensive ULTRASOUND of the abdomen, during which it is estimated the size of the bubble, wall thickness, permeability and possibly occurring stones.

Another method, used as often by doctors, is an attempt to liver, done for the growth of biochemical indicators and the amount of leukocytes in the blood. Abnormal results in this area are also characteristic in diagnosis of gall.

Exclude cancers of the follicle is possible on the basis of computed tomography. Cholelithiasis is one of suspicion with the above described symptoms, so it is important to carry out research that exclude the presence of other – more dangerous diseases and take appropriate treatment.

However, if the doctor suspects that the stone may have already found in bile, necessary to be retrograde Cholangiopancreatography, consisting in the introduction of the endoscope under general anaesthesia, up to the connection of the bile from the duodenum. Found during the test, gallstones, biliary sphincter incision, into the duodenum. Larger rock is removed by using a special basket or by gently carried out crushing. Not always, however, this test allows you to completely get rid of the problem of. Sometimes you need additional methods.


When Colin, gall blader diet, despite taking medication, will lead to dangerous for life and health complications, you may find that you will need additional surgery. Gallstone disease is a disease in which one kind of treatments. Typically, they consist of the removal of the gall bladder, carried out by an open or laparoskopową.

In the first sections to the abdominal wall and cuts out the bubble, along with localized. This method belongs to the classic, however, reluctantly used by medical specialists. Mainly because the post-operative wounds heal longer, and patients are forced to remain in the branch to additional observations.

In the second, on the other hand, hereinafter referred to as the laparoskopową cholecystektomią – operation cholelithiasis, introduces a special equipment that allows you to create 3 minimum cuts on the wall of the abdomen. Because normal incisions have a length of up to 15 cm, doctors prefer to perform laparoscopic surgery cholelithiasis, sprowadzającej to perform the cutting size of up to 1.5 cm. After the surgery, the patient feels well and the pain is definitely smaller than the classic operations, allowing you to leave the hospital after a day. Thus, it is possible to significantly faster return to normal functioning.

Before making a decision about surgery, it is necessary to consult a surgeon. On individual visit is both the same laparoscopic procedure operation cholelithiasis, and the whole treatment process. The right treatment is preceded by a number of laboratory tests:

  • morphology,
  • the level of sugar,
  • APTT,
  • protrombinowym indicator,
  • the level of electrolytes,
  • ECG,
  • additional, in case of additional diseases coexisting.

The risk of post-operative is associated with the formation of several types of complications, ODM subcutaneous, Mediastinal, opłucnowych, congestion, bleeding from sites of injection, or peritoneal inflammation bile duct biopsy, or other cardiovascular complications.

And although the laparoscopic operation cholelithiasis seems to be perfect, it does not in any case it is indicated. Doubts especially those patients, which previously were already abdominal surgery or had they other, similar diseases. In addition, laparoscopic is performed in general anesthesia, hence the contraindications for the advanced circulatory failure or other conditions that prevent the administration of anesthesia. That is why it is necessary to go to the doctor, who will decide whether the case of laparoscopic operation gallstones can be carried out.

Sometimes, therefore, it is necessary to appropriately matched to the patient's drug therapy. It shall be carried out only in the absence of complications and the stones, whose size is max 2 cm in diameter. The length of treatment is usually for half a year and is determined individually in each case individually. The sick is given then ursodeoksucholowy acid, however, the risk of relapse is more than half. Recovery from gall stones is only possible after excision of the follicle, which is a hotbed of stones. Drug therapy may actually reduce the effects of gallstones, but does not allow you to completely eliminate it.

What about after treatment?

If we finish the treatment, you may want to apply to several tips that will make your gallstones will become the only unpleasant memory. No, what reason have an impact on the increased risk of morbidity, but after careful observation there are a few factors that provoke the formation of stones. obesity or hipertriglicerydemię. It is therefore important to maintain a valid, properly balanced diet, because neither advanced Pharmacotherapy, or perfectly performed laparoscopic operation gallstones do not guarantee total get rid of relapse. Therefore, exclude:

  • fatty cuts of meat and fish,
  • mayonnaise,
  • margarine,
  • lard,
  • savoury products,
  • low carbohydrate products.

The diet should be based on the 5-6 small meals eaten at appropriate intervals during the day, rich in such products as for example. low-fat dairy products, wheat bread, cereal or pasta. Food you should boil or simmer, as recommended by liver or bile.

Please note that the removal of the gall bladder belongs to the most common procedures performed by doctors surgeons. Laparoscopic operation gallstones or any of the other methods used in hospitals should therefore not raise concerns among patients. If you notice any of the above symptoms, it is necessary to consult with a medical professional, who will carry out the correct diagnosis.